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NEB Grade 12 Economics

The Grade 12 Economics curriculum is organized into six engaging units, each of which delves into fundamental economic concepts and practices. These units encompass basic economics and resource allocation, microeconomics, macroeconomics, development economics, the Nepalese economy, and quantitative techniques in economics. This comprehensive curriculum equips students with a strong grasp of economic principles, enabling them to comprehend consumer and producer behavior, as well as the workings of markets and economies.

The first unit, “Basic Concepts and Allocation of Resources,” focuses on key topics such as scarcity, choice, opportunity cost, and the production possibility curve. Additionally, it explores the advantages and disadvantages of division of labor and specialization.

The second unit, “Microeconomics,” delves into essential concepts like cost and revenue analysis, price and output determination in, and factor pricing.

The third unit, “Macroeconomics,” introduces students to concepts related to the banking system, monetary policy, government finance (including government budget and taxation), and international trade.

The fourth unit, “Development of Economics,” covers critical subjects such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, human resources, and the human development index.

The fifth unit, “Nepalese Economy,” aims to enhance understanding of the Nepalese economy in the area of foreign trade, foreign employment, development planning, and sustainable development goals.

Lastly, the sixth unit, “Quantitative Techniques in economics,” emphasizes the significance of mathematics in economics and equips students with practical skills for data collection, use and computations of standard deviation, and index number.

The Grade 12 Economics program provides students with foundational insights into micro and macroeconomic theories, Nepal’s economy, and quantitative techniques, preparing them for real-world economic engagement and comprehension.

Chapters in Economics

  • Chapter 1 – Basic Concepts of Economics
  • Chapter 2 – Market and Revenue Curves
  • Chapter 3 – Cost and Cost Curves
  • Chapter 4 – Theories of Price and Output Determination
  • Chapter 5 – Factor Pricing
  • Chapter 6 – Banking and Monetary Policy
  • Chapter 7 – Government Finance
  • Chapter 8 – International Trade
  • Chapter 9 – Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Human Resource
  • Chapter 10 – Foreign Trade and Foreign Employment of Nepal
  • Chapter 11 – Development Planning in Nepal
  • Chapter 12 – Sustainable Development Goals and Nepal
  • Chapter 13 – Basic Concepts of Statistics
  • Chapter 14 – Project Work

Important topics in NEB Class 12 Economics

  • Economic system
  • Production possibility curve 
  • Monopoly market and its features 
  • Perfect competition market 
  • Derivation of revenue curve in monopoly market 
  • Relationship between marginal and average cost (curve)
  • Price and output determination in perfectly competitive market 
  • Price and output determination of in monopoly market 
  • Ricardian theory of rent 
  • Classical theory of interest
  • Functions of central bank
  • Process of plan formulation in Nepal
  • Computation of standard deviation and index number

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